Demokrasi Terpimpin: Langkah Soekarno dalam Mengembalikan Demokrasi Sesuai Jalurnya

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Demokrasi Terpimpin: Langkah Soekarno dalam Mengembalikan Demokrasi Sesuai Jalurnya
Foto: Poster gagasan "Manipol USDEK" Bung Karno untuk mengembalikan demokrasi Indonesia sesuai cita-cita kemerdekaan.

Kota Semarang – Presiden pertama RI, Ir. Soekarno pernah mengatakan dengan gamblang bahwa ia adalah seorang demokrat sejati. Namun, pemikiran-pemikiran demokrasi Bung Karno bukanlah demokrasi yang mengarah pada liberalisme, suatu sistem yang menjadi embrio ketidakadilan dan kesusahan kaum marhaen, melainkan demokrasi yang telah disesuaikan dengan etika, norma, dan budaya yang mengakar pada masyarakat Indonesia.

Gagasan demokrasi liberal ala barat dinilai tidak cocok dengan kepribadian bangsa Indonesia, mengingat demokrasi liberal yang berorientasi pada kepentingan politik semata. Oleh sebab itu, sistem demokrasi yang didambakan oleh Bung Karno merupakan demokrasi terpimpin yang berpondasikan Sosio-Nasionalisme dan Sosio-Demokrasi, yang dalam praktiknya tidak pernah keluar dari proses-proses pelaksanaan hasil musyawarah dan mufakat.

Foto: Parade pemuda pemudi Barisan Soekarno.

Sekilas Latar Belakang Pemikiran Demokrasi Terpimpin

Soekarno merupakan seorang pemikir sekaligus penggerak yang progresif dan revolusioner. Ia dilahirkan pada masa kolonial dan benar-benar merasakan pedihnya penindasan dan ketidakadilan yang dialami oleh rakyat Indonesia. Sehingga, pemikirannya mengenai kehidupan politik kenegaraan selalu linear dengan gagasan-gagasan ekonominya untuk mendongkrak kesejahteraan rakyat.

Atas dasar itulah, pada 1932 Soekarno menuangkan pemikirannya melalui kumpulan karangannya yang berjudul “Demokrasi Politik dan Demokrasi Ekonomi serta Kapitalisme Bangsa Sendiri”. Pada tulisan tersebut, Soekarno menumpahkan kritiknya terhadap pelaksanaan demokrasi liberal, mendorong modernisasi pemikiran kaum muslim, dan penjabaran konsep demokrasi yang sesuai dengan akar budaya nusantara.

Demokratisch Centralism

Salah satu karya Soekarno yang mengemuka adalah tulisannya yang berjudul “Mentjapai Indonesia Merdeka”, yang ditulisnya pada 1933. Soekarno menjabarkan bagaimana imperialisme yang membelenggu bangsa Indonesia berakibat pada ketidakadilan yang masif terjadi. Realita ini membuat Soekarno tidak pernah mengubah pandangannya untuk mengecam praktik-praktik demokrasi liberal dan imperialisme.

Soekarno menilai bahwa demokrasi yang cocok diterapkan di Indonesia adalah demokrasi yang dipimpin oleh partai pelopor massa yang berpijak pada asas Sosio-Nasionalisme dan Sosio-Demokrasi. Melalui asas inilah, sistem gotong royong yang menjadi nilai utama bangsa Indonesia bisa berjalan seiring dengan berjalannya kehidupan bernegara. Selain itu, keadilan sosial dan kesejahteraan bisa didorong melalui upaya penyusunan ekonomi yang bersifat nasional, demokratis, dan mengacu pada sosialisme Indonesia yang termaktub dalam pemikiran marhaenisme.

Foto: Presiden Soekarno tengah berpidato.

Demokrasi Terpimpin Sebagai Jawaban Atas Ketidakadilan

Sistem demokrasi terpimpin dalam kerangka konseptual maupun praktik pada masa pemerintahan Soekarno sama-sama harus dapat dipahami secara komprehensif sebagai satu kesatuan yang utuh. Pasalnya, kompleksitas kebijakan yang menjadi buah dari penerapan sistem demokrasi terpimpin menjadi rancu manakala hanya dipahami sebagian aspek saja. Sistem demokrasi terpimpin secara simultan harus dipahami secara kronologis serta ideologis agar tidak menimbulkan pemahaman sepihak yang merugikan.

Demokrasi terpimpin yang secara resmi diterapkan di Indonesia pada 5 Juli 1959 dikeluarkannya Dekrit Presiden menjawab persoalan keberlanjutan revolusi Indonesia yang bertujuan untuk mewujudkan cita-cita kemerdekaan, yaitu masyarakat adil dan makmur yang sempat hilang arah pada masa demokrasi liberal. Sehingga, langkah progresif yang pertama dilakukan adalah dengan memberlakukan kembali UUD 1945 sebagai konstitusi yang sah.

Selanjutnya, melalui pidato 17 Agustus 1959 atau yang lebih dikenal dengan Penemuan
Kembali Revolusi Kita, Soekarno menjabarkan isi Manifesto Politik (Manipol) yang kemudian ditetapkan sebagai Garis Besar Haluan Negara (GBHN). Sebagai GBHN, Manipol sendiri memiliki lima intisari untuk mendorong demokrasi sesuai jalurnya, menciptakan keadilan sosial, dan mensejahterakan rakyat melalui prinsip gotong royong. Lima intisari tersebut antara lain diberlakukannya UUD 1945, Sosialisme Indonesia, Demokrasi Terpimpin, Ekonomi Terpimpin, dan Kepribadian Bangsa Indonesia.

Baca juga: Prespektif Bung Karno Terhadap Kehidupan Berbangsa Indonesia

Tim Editor

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